Giving Important topics YouTube links for Data Structure and Algorithms. Quadratic Probing: ipprofehaphvol.ml?v=dxrLtf-Fybk. Prefix to infix. SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF DATA STRUCTURES WITH JAVA Second Edition . The Sequential Search Algorithm 30 The Binary Search Algorithm 31 Chapter 3. Data Structures with c - By Schaum series. Ar if. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the button.
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Data Structures With c - By Schaum Series - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or Data Structures and Algorithms Made Easy-Narasimha Karumanchi. Data Structure Schaum Series (Chapter 4 to 9) by Gitansh - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or Lec1-Introduction to Data Structure and Algorithms. DOWNLOAD PDF Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in Java Third Edition of algorithms and data structures pdf · Hitlers Bombe book Schaum's Outline.
Schaum's Outlines contain hundreds of solutions to problems covered in any college course. This guide, which can be used with any text or can stand alone, contains at the beginning of each chapter a list of key definitions, a summary of major concepts, step by step solutions to dozens of problems, and additional practice.
Internal tests to be conducted separately. Forouzan, Thomson. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of data structures. Lipschutz, Seymour. Date: Abstract: Addressing the field of data structures, this text covers string processing; arrays; records and pointers; linked lists; stacks; queues; recursion; trees; graphs and their applications;.
Syllabus outline. Introduction to data structure and algorithms; Complexity of algorithms; Array, stack, queue; Linked lists; Recursion; Trees, binary trees, traversal; Sorting and searching algorithms. Ellis Horowitz, Satraj Sahni and.
After reading this book , you will be able to : 1. To develop proficiency in the specification, representation, and implementation of data types and data structures. To understand the basic concepts of the fundamentals of different types of data structures. To demonstrate the ways of implementation of.
Like other Schaum's Outlines, this book is intended to be used primarily for self study. It is.. Abstractions are used. About the Author. Seymour Lipschutz is a well-known author who is also an expert in probability and mathematics. He was born in and received his degree from Brooklyn College before going on to teach in the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute.
He then joined Temple University, from where he published 48 research. Many complete programs are included.
If you want top grades and a thorough understanding of the. Schaum's Outlines has 78 entries in the series.. Mathematical Handbook of Schaum's Outlines Series. Since it returns a reference to an Object, it must be cast to the array type being duplicated, int or String.
The last part of the example shows that the cloned array d is indeed a separate copy of c: Changing c to "XYZ" has no effect upon the value "CD" of d. The name of this class is Arrays, and it is defined in the java. Arrays Class This program imports the Arrays class from the java.
It also imports the static print method from Example 2. At line 7, the call Arrays. At line 9, the Arrays. The second argument, 44, is the search target.
The method returns the index 2, which is assigned to k at line 9. Line 11 verifies that 44 is indeed the value of a. The method is invoked again at line 13, this time searching for the target The output from line 17 shows how the Arrays. It will return true only if the two arrays have the same element type as a and b do: int , the same length as a and b do: 8 , and the same values at each element a and b do not.
The java. Arrays class is outlined in more detail in page It is also the least efficient. It simply examines each element sequentially, starting with the first element, until it finds the key element or it reaches the end of the array. If you were looking for someone on a moving passenger train, you would use a sequential search. Return 1. It is implemented in Example 2. The method returns —1 when the target is not in the array: search a, 50 returns —1, because 50 is not in the array.
The sequential search is correct. This means that it works. The following argument is a proof of that fact. Only step 4 executes, immediately returning 1. If s0 z x, then the loop terminates, step 4 executes, and 1 is returned, and that satisfies the postcondition because the single element of the sequence is not equal to x.
We want to apply the First Principle of Mathematical Induction to deduce that the loop invariant must be true on every iteration of the loop. See page That requires the verification of the invariant on the first iteration and the deduction of the invariant on iteration i from the corresponding invariant on iteration i 1. If s0 z x, then the loop continues on to a second iteration.
Thus, si z x. This means that, on average, the running time is proportional to the number of elements in the array. So if everything else is the same, then applying the sequential search to an array twice as long will take about twice as long, on average. If x is not in the sequence, then the loop will iterate n times, making the running time proportional to n, which is O n.
It is much more efficient than the sequential search, but it does require that the elements be in order. It repeatedly divides the sequence in two, each time restricting the search to the half that would contain the element. You might use the binary search to look up a word in a dictionary. Let ss be a subsequence of the sequence s, initially set equal to s. If the subsequence ss is empty, return 1. Invariant: If x is in the sequence s, then it must be in the subsequence ss. Let si be the middle element of ss.
Repeat steps 2 7 on the subsequence of ss that lies below si. The binary search is correct. The loop invariant is true on the first iteration because the current subsequence is the same as the original sequence. On every other iteration, the current subsequence was defined in the preceding iteration to be the half of the previous subsequence that remained after omitting the half that did not contain x. So if x was in the original sequence, then it must be in the current subsequence.
Thus the loop invariant is true on every iteration. Since the original sequence has only a finite number of elements, the loop cannot continue indefinitely. Those eventualities are represented by the two feedback loops shown in Figure 1. Individual classes and methods have to be tested separately, and then their success at working together must be verified. Finally, the product as a whole is tested against the requirements document.
One final aspect of software development that is not shown in the figure is the maintenance process. After the software has been delivered, its developers remain obliged to maintain it with corrected versions, service packages, and even major revisions.
Any major revision itself would follow the same life cycle steps. This is also called step-wise refinement. It focuses on the functional aspects of the problem and the implementation of algorithms. This procedure-oriented design is common in scientific programming. In contrast, object-oriented design focuses on the data components of the software, organizing the design around their representatives. All executable code in Java is organized into classes that represent objects.
For this reason, Java is regarded as an object-oriented programming language. An object is a software unit that is produced according to a unique class specification. It is called an instance of its class, and the process of creating it is called instantiating the class. For example, this code instantiates the java. Date class: Date ; The variable today is a reference to the object, as shown in Figure 1. Ignoring the distinction between a reference and the object to which it refers, we would also say today is the Figure 1.
Date object. A Java class consists of three kinds of members: An object-oriented design specifies the classes that will be instantiated in the software. Figure 1. Each of the eight class members is prefaced with a visibility symbol: They are used in object-oriented design to specify objects. They provide a kind of pseudo-code for classes.
They specify the state i. UML diagrams include no executable code. Specifying what an object can do without specifying how it does it is an abstraction. It allows the design stage to be separated from the implementation stage of the software development. It also facilitates modification of the software by allowing an implementation to be changed without affecting dependent modules.
Data structures and algorithms in Java
For example, suppose that an airline reservation system uses the Person class specified by the UML diagram in Figure 1. How it computes that result is irrelevant. The implementation probably computes the chronological difference between the value of the private field x.
But there is nothing in the contract that specifies that. Moreover, if the implementation is changed, none of the other code in the reservation system would be affected by that change. Even though they are different, rocks and tennis balls fall at the same rate. The physicist uses the abstraction of imagining a single imaginary point mass to understand the physics of falling bodies. By ignoring the irrelevancies diameter, weight , the abstraction allows the analyst to focus on the relevancies height.
Abstractions are widely used in software development. UML diagrams provide abstractions by focusing on the fields the state and methods the behavior of a class. But at some levels, even the fields of a class may be irrelevant. An abstract data type ADT is a specification of only the behavior of instances of that type.
Such a specification may be all that is needed to design a module that uses the type. Primitive types are like ADTs. We know what the int type can do add, subtract, multiply, etc.
But we need not know how it does these operations. And we need not even know how an int is actually stored. As clients, we can use the int operations without having to know how they are implemented. In fact, if we had to think about how they are implemented, it would probably be a distraction from designing the software that will use them. Likewise, if you had to think about how your car manages to turn its front wheels when you turn the steering wheel, it would probably be more difficult to drive!
Such numbers can be implemented as objects.
Here is a design for a fraction type: Fraction plus Fraction: Fraction times Integer: Fraction times Fraction: Fraction reciprocal: Fraction value: Real This ADT specifies five operations. Note that the times operation is overloaded. Note that the ADT uses generic terms for types: Integer instead of int, and Real instead of double.
That is because it is supposed to be independent of any specific programming language. In general, a complete ADT would also include documentation that explains exactly how each operation should behave.
For example, x. ADTs can be used in pseudocode to implement algorithms independently of any specific programming language. This is illustrated in Example 1.
In pseudocode for Fraction types, this could be expressed as: Fraction, y: Fraction returns Fraction return x. Recall that a Java interface is just like a Java class, except that it contains no executable code. If an ADT is translated into Java as an interface, then we can implement algorithms that use it as Java methods.
In Java, an interface is a type. Reference variables may be declared to have an interface type, even if the interface has no implementation. For example, the parameters x and y at line 1 of Example 1. An interface may represent an ADT, as in Example 1.
More generally, a Java interface is meant to identify a capability. For example, the Comparable interface requires the implementation of this method: Every variable must be declared to have a data type.
The various Java types are shown in Figure 1. These are categorized as either primitive types or reference types. The eight built-in primitive types are for integers, characters, decimal numbers, and boolean values.
Reference types are user-defined, and their variables must be instantiated to hold data. Arrays are reviewed in Chapter 2; interfaces are types that cannot be instantiated; enum types are defined by listing all the values that a variable of that type may have.
Classes are concrete data types that specify how their state is stored the class fields and how their instances behave the instance methods. A class is defined in a declaration statement with this syntax: A class can have six kinds of members: Fields that specify the kind of data that the objects hold.
Constructors that specify how the objects are to be created. Methods that specify the operations that the objects can perform.
Nested classes. Enum type definitions. Each member of a class must be specified in its own declaration statement. The purpose of a declaration is to introduce an identifier to the compiler. It provides all the information that the compiler needs in order to compile statements that use that identifier. A field is a variable that holds data for the object.
Data Structures With C – by Schaum Series PDF
The simplest kind of field declaration has this syntax: For example, the Point class in Example 1. Each has the modifier protected, which means that they are accessible only from within the class itself and from its extensions. A constructor is a subprogram that creates an object. The simplest kind of constructor declaration has this syntax: If it does, it is then an executable program.
Otherwise, it merely defines a new type that can be used elsewhere. In addition to its three fields, this class has two constructors and four methods. The no-arg constructor it has no arguments defined at line 6 is declared private so that it cannot be invoked from outside of its class.
It is invoked at line 4 to initialize the ZERO object. This constructor uses the this keyword at line 7 to invoke the two-arg constructor, passing 0 to num and 1 to den.
The two-arg constructor at line 10 is provided to the public for constructing Ratio objects with specific num and den values. Note that, to prevent the ZERO object from being duplicated, we could have included this at line The equals method at line 15 overrides the default equals method that is defined in the Object class which all other classes extend.
Its purpose is to return true if and only if its explicit argument object represents the same thing as its implicit argument this. It returns true immediately at line 17 if the two objects are merely different names for the same object. On the other hand, it returns false at line 19 if the explicit argument is not even the right type.
These tests for the two extremes are canonical and should be done first in every equals method. If they both are passed, then we can recast the explicit argument as an object of the same type as the implicit argument Ratio so we can access its fields num and den. The toString method at line 33 also overrides the corresponding method that is defined in the Object class. Its purpose is to return a String representation of its implicit argument.
It is invoked automatically whenever a reference to an instance of the class appears in an expression where a String object is expected. Finally, the value method at line 37 returns a decimal approximation of the numerical value of the ratio. For example, at line 7 in the test program below, x.
ZERO ; System. These are summarized in the following tables. Modifier Meaning abstract The class cannot be instantiated. Table 1. If none of these is specified, then the entity has package access, which means that it can be accessed from any class in the same package. The modifier final has three different meanings, depending upon which kind of entity it modifies. If it modifies a class, final means that the class cannot be extended to a subclass.
See Chapter 9. If it modifies a field or a local variable, it means that the variable must be initialized and cannot be changed, that is, it is a constant. If it modifies a method, it means that the method cannot be overridden in any subclass. The modifier static means that the member can be accessed only as an agent of the class itself, as opposed to being bound to a specific object instantiated from the class.
For example, the format method, invoked at line 34 in the Line class in Example 1. On the other hand, the value method, invoked at line 7 in the test program is a nonstatic method. It is bound to the object x, an instance of the Ratio class, and is accessed x.
A static method is also called a class method; a nonstatic method is also called an instance method. The object to which an instance method is bound in an invocation is called its implicit argument for that invocation.
For example, the implicit argument in the invocation x. When a class A contains references to instances of a class B and controls all access to those instances, we say that A is a composition of B. For example, a University class would be a composition of Department objects. Each Department object belongs to a unique University object, which controls access to its department. For example, a university owns a department. When a class A contains references to a class B whose instances exist and are accessible outside of A, we say that A is an aggregation of B.
For example, in a university software system, a Department class would contain references to Professor objects who are members of the department, but who also exist outside the department. In fact, a professor could be a member of two different departments.
For example, a department has a professor. When a class A includes all the members of a class B, we say that A is an extension of B, and that it inherits all the properties of B.
For example, a Professor class would be an extension of a Person objects. For example, a professor is a person. Composition is indicated by a filled diamond head adjacent to the composing class, aggregation is indicated by an empty diamond head adjacent to the aggregating class, and inheritance is indicated by an empty arrow head adjacent to the extended class. Note how the Professor constructor uses the super keyword to invoke the Person constructor at line 7.
The existence of a department is dependent upon the existence of its university.
Therefore, the Department class should be completely controlled and insulated by the University class. This is done by defining it to be a nested private static class at line 2. The University. Department class has two fields: It includes an add method at line 11 for adding professors to the department. The University class has two fields: It includes two add methods at lines 28 and 36 and an accessor method that returns the Set of department names at line Note that the University.
Department class is an aggregate of Professor objects. Therefore, the Professor class is defined separately from the University. Department class.
INSTR ; profs. Note that Prof. Baker is a member of both departments. Adams is promoted to Professor. PROF at line Example 1. This library is part of the java. The JCF is outlined in Chapter 4. These are summarized in Table 1. ZERO x.
Schaum's Outline of Data Structures with C++
The purpose of the method is to indicate whether the implicit argument is less than, equal to, or greater than the explicit argument. The indicator is the sign of the returned integer: Negative indicates that this object. To ensure that the denominators are not negative, we employ the static utility method defined at line It ensures that the denominator of its argument is not negative. The association symbol is a dashed arrow pointing to the interface.
Note that an interface rectangle has only two parts, while a class rectangle has three. This is because interfaces have no fields. The Comparable interface is part of the java.
A char cannot be used where a boolean is expected, and a Ratio object cannot be used where a Person object is expected. But there are some situations where a variable of one type can be used where another type is expected. There are several kinds of polymorphism.
The simplest kind is called inclusion polymorphism. Illustrated in Example 1. It uses the type parameter T as a place- holder for an actual type, which will be determined at run time.
When the generic method is invoked at lines 4 and 6, the type String is used in place of T. When it is invoked at lines 11 and 13, the type Ratio is used.
This makes the method polymorphic, capable of printing arrays of String objects and arrays of Ratio objects.
The program also uses the generic sort method that is defined in the java. Arrays class. It requires the type parameter T to be an extension of the Comparable interface, which both the String class and our Ratio class are. Inclusion polymorphism and parametric polymorphism are both special cases of universal polymorphism. The other general kind of polymorphism is called ad hoc polymorphism which also has two special kinds, named overloading polymorphism and coercion.
These are best illustrated with primitive types. Coercion occurs when a value of one type is implicitly converted to a value of another type when the context requires that other type. These libraries are orgainzed into several package hierarchies, known collectively as the Application Programming Interface API.
The two most common package hierarchies are the java and javax hierarchies, parts of which are shown in Figure 1. Review Questions 1. String class 1. Problems 1. Point amplitude: Real distanceTo Point: Real equals Point: Boolean magnitude: Real toString: String xCoordinate: Real yCoordinate: Real 1. Line contains Point: Boolean equals Line: Boolean isHorizontal: Boolean isVertical: Boolean slope: String xIntercept: Real yIntercept: Circle area: Real center: Point circumference: Real contains Point: Boolean equals Circle: Boolean radius: String CHAP.
Polynomial degree: Polynomial equals Point: Boolean sum Polynomial: Polynomial toString: String valueAt Real: Answers to Review Questions 1. The implementation stage is where the computer progam code is actually written. The behavior of a class is defined by its methods.
The main method must have this header: A class member that is declared protected is accessible only from its own class and subclasses extensions. A class member that is declared private is accessible only from its own class. A constructor is a member function of a class that is used to create objects of that class.
It has the same name as the class itself, has no return type, and is invoked using the new operator. A method is an ordinary member function of a class. It has its own name, a return type which may be void , and is invoked using the dot operator. A class method is declared static and is invoked using the class name. For example, 1. An instance method is declared without the static modifier and is invoked using the name of the object to which it is bound.
Two references are equal if they refer to the same object. In the second case, s is initialized to refer to the empty String object. With aggregation, the component elements exits outside of the collection, can be changed by other classes, and may even be components of other aggregates. For example, inheritance allows an argument of type B to be passed to a parameter of type A if B extends A.
Solutions to Problems 1. The element numbers are called index numbers. Array elements can be accessed by their index numbers using the subscript operator , as a, a, a, and so on. Arrays are widely used because they are so efficient. Arrays are objects. Arrays are created dynamically at run time.
Arrays may be assigned to variables of type Object. Any method of the Object class may be invoked on an array. An array object contains a sequence of variables. The variables are called the components or elements of the array. If the component type is T, then the array itself has type T. An array type variable holds a reference to the array object.
The component type may itself be an array type. An array element is a component whose type is not an array type. The length of an array is its number of components. Array index values must be integers in the range Variables of type short, byte, or char can be used as indexes.
Arrays can be duplicated with the Object. Arrays can be tested for equality with the Arrays. Array objects implement Cloneable and java. Property 3 follows from Property 1. Although array types are not classes, they behave this way as extensions of the Object class. Property 7 shows that array types are not the same as class types. They are, in fact, derived types: For every class type T there is a corresponding array type T.
Also, for each of the eight primitive types, the corresponding array type exists. Technically, Java allows multidimensional arrays only with primitive types. But for objects, an array of arrays is essentially the same thing. Since arrays themselves are objects, an array of arrays is an array of objects, and some of those component objects could also be nonarrays.
See Example 2. Note that a consequence of Property 13 is that changing a reference component value to null has no effect upon the length of the array; null is still a valid value of a reference component.
Line 4 defines x to have float components. Note the two different equivalent ways to declare an array: The brackets may be a suffix on the type identifier or on the array identifier. Line 5 defines args to have 10 String components. Line 6 defines isPrime to be an array of boolean variables. Line 7 defines fib to be an array of 8 ints, initializing them to the 8 values listed. So for example, fib has the value 3, and fib has the value Line 8 defines b to be a three-dimensional array of 4 components, each of which is a twodimensional array of 10 components, each of which is a one-dimensional array of 5 component elements of type short.
Line 9 defines a to be an array of five components, each of which is an array of elements of type double. Only three of the five component arrays are allocated. Then line 10 allocates a element array of doubles to a, and line 11 assigns 3. Line 12 defines the array objects to consist of six components, each of which is itself an array. The components of the first four component arrays are elements nonarrays. But the components of the components b and a are not elements because they are also arrays.
The actual elements of the objects array include 2, 5, and 13 components of the component fib , null components of the component a , and 2.
The array a defined in Example 2. The element type of an array in Java can be a primitive type, a reference type, or an array type. The simplest, of course, are arrays of primitive type elements, such as x, isPrime, and fib in Example 2.
These are arrays that can be sorted. The array b is a duplicate of a. Similarly, the array d is a duplicate of the array c, each containing three String elements. In both cases, the duplication is obtained by invoking the clone method. Since it returns a reference to an Object, it must be cast to the array type being duplicated, int or String. The last part of the example shows that the cloned array d is indeed a separate copy of c: The name of this class is Arrays, and it is defined in the java.
Arrays Class This program imports the Arrays class from the java. It also imports the static print method from Example 2. At line 7, the call Arrays. At line 9, the Arrays. The second argument, 44, is the search target. The method returns the index 2, which is assigned to k at line 9. Line 11 verifies that 44 is indeed the value of a. The method is invoked again at line 13, this time searching for the target The output from line 17 shows how the Arrays.
It filled the eight-element array b with the argument It will return true only if the two arrays have the same element type as a and b do: The java. Arrays class is outlined in more detail in page It is also the least efficient.
It simply examines each element sequentially, starting with the first element, until it finds the key element or it reaches the end of the array.
If you were looking for someone on a moving passenger train, you would use a sequential search. Here is the sequential search algorithm: Return 1. It is implemented in Example 2. The method returns —1 when the target is not in the array: The sequential search is correct. This means that it works. The following argument is a proof of that fact. Only step 4 executes, immediately returning 1. This satisfies the postconditions: If s0 z x, then the loop terminates, step 4 executes, and 1 is returned, and that satisfies the postcondition because the single element of the sequence is not equal to x.
We want to apply the First Principle of Mathematical Induction to deduce that the loop invariant must be true on every iteration of the loop. See page That requires the verification of the invariant on the first iteration and the deduction of the invariant on iteration i from the corresponding invariant on iteration i 1.
If s0 z x, then the loop continues on to a second iteration. Thus, si z x. This means that, on average, the running time is proportional to the number of elements in the array.Wednesday, February 12, The analogy between iterators and cursors is not complete. Point circumference: The array index allows the get and set methods to run in constant time, independent of the size of the collection.
It proved difficult in many cases to write a compiler with more than limited ability to take advantage of the features provided by conventional CPUs.
This is an object-oriented extension of the popular C language, and it promises to grow in popularity. Fields that specify the kind of data that the objects hold.
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